BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 3 9999 06544 664 1 GOVERN NTS DEPARTMEI BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY A EflD§§D@G3 ANNUAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1973 GOV DOC 6457 .34 1973 Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/annualreportofme19723mass FRANCIS W. SARGENT Governor CHARLES H. W. FOSTER Secretary of Environmental Affairs JOHN W. SEARS Commissioner FRANCIS W. SARGENT Governor CHARLES H. W. FOSTER Secretary of Environmental Affairs JOHN W. SEARS Commissioner Associate Commissioners JOHN A. CRONIN JOHN F. HAGGERTY ARTHUR T. LYMAN, JR. VINCENT P. O'BRIEN RICHARD I. FURBUSH Secretary of the Commission MARTIN F. COSGROVE Administrative Engineer Executive Assistants JOHN J. BEADES JOHN W. FRENNING JAMES T. O'DONNELL Chief Administrative Assistants JOHN A. KESSLER, JR. JOHN F. SNEDEKER JOHN W. WRIGHT General Counsel DIVISION DIRECTORS FRANCIS T. BERGIN Chief Engineer Engineering Division LAURENCE J. CARPENTER Superintendent of Police MASON J. CONDON Director of Parks Engineering Chief Parks Engineer ALLAN GRIEVE, JR. Director of Water Division Chief Water Supply Engineer ALLISON C. HAYES Director of Sewerage Division Chief Sewerage Engineer WILLIAM T. KENNEY Acting Director Parks & Recreation Division HAROLD L. DOWER Director of Administrative Services MARTIN WEISS Director of Environmental Planning Publication of this Document Approved by Alfred C. Holland. State Purchasing Agent. 2000 12 74 109272 Est. Cost $1 .00 THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 20 SOMERSET STREET, BOSTON 02108 To His Excellency the Governor and the Secretary of Environmental Affairs: To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: To the Honorable Mayors, Selectmen, and Municipal Officials: To the Public of the Metropolitan Parks, Sewer, and Water Districts: The Metropolitan District Commissioners submit herewith their Report of the activities of the Commission for fiscal 1973, together with financial data for the same period. It is our hope that this Report not only satisfies the requirements of Section 100 of Chapter 92 of the General Laws, but also proves to be an informative and helpful account of a great state agency. The present Commissioners have taken the position that the MDC should be changed in three ways. First, its sense of identity, self-reliance, and purpose, had to be restored. We feel that we have made substantial progress toward this result by strengthening the agency's capacity to plan, to pro- tect its own resources, and to handle its own problems. Second, the agency had to be modernized and streamlined, and be more efficient about the pro- vision of services and the information provided to those being served. We have moved in this direction by realigning divisions and creating new ones, and by stepping up our dialogue within government and with the public. Third, MDC's dynamism had to be renewed, and the agency had to begin thinking about the long- range future of its parks, water supply, and sanitary systems. This has been accomplished by a series of major task force efforts. During the year 1972-73, these three purposes were forwarded by: positive MDC efforts to join the Environmental Family as a member, comprehensive reorganization and centralization of Police activities, establishment of Central Personnel, Purchasing and Repair services, termination of the old bond-oriented salary and water refinancing systems, and creation of major multi-agency task forces on Water Supply and Wastewater. Meanwhile, the agency's debt has not, except in Water, increased over 1968 figures. Total per- sonnel have declined 4.6% since June 1972 and 11.7% since June 1970. Total cost of operations declined 1.4% since last year, and assessments to the cities and towns dropped 2.2%. We think in a year of dramatic change and substantial pay increases, these figures show a record of good and care- ful administration. Respectfully submitted, £5£>U^ John W. Sears Commissioner The Year's Highlights Significant progress toward enhancing the quality of urban life — currently and long-range — has highlighted the Metropolitan District Commission's 1973 fiscal year. Applying its traditional, regional concept of supplying vital services to nearly 2.5 million inhabitants of 54 G reater Boston cities and towns, MDC has intensified efforts in providing recreation, parks, open space, water supply, pol- lution abatement, sewage collection and treatment, law enforcement and traffic control. The Parks District saw many additional facilities com- pleted, featured by 4 rinks, 3 swimming pools, a new sailing program and a revival of canoeing on the Charles River. In the planning or design stage are large-scale recreational projects, including conversion of Mystic River Basin into a counterpart of the Charles River Basin and Esplanade. Taking shape at Franklin Park Zoo is a dramatic "Bird World," a prime example of the zoo's rehabilitation theme of a free-moving environment for animals and bird- life, to be further reflected in an all-season, 7-acre African exhibit in the planning stage. Recreation programming has stressed more intensive and diversified use of the parks system. The Commission acquired several substantial park properties. In preparation for the Bicentennial, historic sites are being restored and dressed up with new attractions. Responding to demands, the Water District's distribu- tion system is expanding steadily, while planning for supply needs of the next decade and a study looking ahead a half- century are progressing. Consumption in excess of safe yield of watersheds still exists, underlining the urgency of implementing plans for additional sources. The district con- tinues to grow, with the 33rd member joining in 1973 and another scheduled next year. Projections indicate 41 additional cities and towns must rely on the MDC system for supplementary supply in the next generation. In another phase, a fluoridation program is moving toward activation. Wastewater disposal solutions for the Sewerage District are being explored in an intensive study looking ahead through 2050. Meanwhile, water quality in Boston Harbor and the Charles and Mystic rivers has been upgraded by constructing treatment plants, enlarging the interceptor sewer system to reduce overflows and rehabilitating harbor tidegates. New-type treatment techniques are in prepara- CONTENTS Parks Development 4 Recreation Activity 6 Zoos 9 Historic Sites 11 Open Space Acquisition 12 Pollution Control 13 Water Supply 16 Transportation 19 Metropolitan District Police 20 Organization 22 Finances 24 District Membership 28 District Map Inside Back Cover tion or under study, particularly an in-stream approach on the Charles. A revamping of the administrative and management structure of the Metropolitan District Police is progressing, with emphasis on stronger headquarters operation and specialized command and staff functions. A Traffic Plan- ning unit and a Central Records system are among other features of the reorganization program. A breakdown of MDC membership shows 43 cities and towns with 2,219,000 inhabitants in the Sewerage District; 33 communities and 1,911,730 residents in the Water Dis- trict, and 37 with 2,025,000 population in the Parks District. Twenty-three municipalities are members of all three districts, 13 are served by 2 districts and 18 by 1 district. MDC's cost for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, was $67,245,705, including $5,557,332 from the State Highway Fund and other state-financed activity such as flood control projects. This compared with $68,693,211 in 1972, of which $8,004,076 came from state sources rather than MDC District funding. New Rinks, Pools Feature Varied Parks Expansion A big spurt in new recreational facilities has been seen during the year, accompanied by steady growth of activity programs and Parks District landholdings, now totaling 14,332 acres. While rinks and pools have highlighted ongoing construc- tion, MDC has also been busy developing such projects as parks, zoos, sailing, athletic areas, beaches and fishing. Large-scale planning and design efforts presage even wider expansion of active and passive recreational oppor- tunities and upgrading of many existing facilities. In anticipation of the Bicentennial celebration, much attention is being focused .on enhancing historic sites, particularly Bunker Hill, Fort Independence and Fort Warren. Recreation programming has continued to emphasize innovative and more intensive use of the parks system. An ambitious construction program has seen MDC's largest simultaneous expansion of skating rinks and swim- ming pools at an approximate cost of $5.2 million. In an unprecedented event, 4 rinks were opened at Can- ton, Waltham, Lynn and Weymouth on the same day for the 1972-73 season, enlarging the rink network to 25. Work was started on a rink at the Hormel Stadium athletic com- plex in Medford, while planning went forward for others in North Cambridge and Boston's North End. The North End rink in a projected City of Boston water- front park will be unusual in several respects. Among its features are a low profile by depressing the skating surface, transparent walls at ground level to provide surrounding harbor and park views and 500 seats for spectators. Enclosure and improvements at rinks in Quincy, Hyde Park and South Boston were completed, increasing the number of fully-enclosed rinks to 13. Three pools were placed in operation in West Roxbury and Melrose and in Weymouth — the department's first year-round swimming facility — boosting the total to 19 pools. The rinks and pools are scattered throughout the Parks District, close to easy access from main roadways and situated to serve regional needs. For beach-goers, selected sections at Revere and Nan- tasket and the entire Tenean beach in Dorchester have been upgraded by 125,000 tons of sand and beach erosion prob- WOODSY SETTING is a prime natural asset at Cutler Park in Need ham and Dedham where unspoiled tranquility is found hardly 9 miles from downtown Boston. BEACH IMPROVEMENT PROGRESS lems have been studied by a professional hydrologist. Most beaches have had selective sanding in recent years. A long- range program for erosion control at Nantasket and Revere is planned in cooperation with the Army Corps of Engineers which has received approval of preliminary funding. In the final preparation stage is a multi-faceted improve- ment program at Wollaston Beach, where the southerly end will be extended and a 3000-foot stretch of Quincy Shore Drive relocated and realigned to provide additional parking and picnic areas. A revised and expanded concept has pro- vided for important environmental considerations such as shifting new parking sites to cluster areas on the parkway's inland side and a culvert-type structure for replacing Black's Creek Bridge to retain existing water level and tidal action in the upstream waters. Meanwhile, the job of repairing seawalls and other damage along MDC's 16-mile oceanfront wreaked by the disastrous northeast storm of February, 1972, has been completed at an approximate cost of $1.8 million, financed in large measure by Federal emergency funds. The exciting prospect of converting Mystic River Basin into a counterpart of the famed Charles River Basin is being finalized in a master plan for a multi-million dollar develop- ment of the 525-acre fresh water area between Route 93 expressway and Amelia Earhart Dam. MYSTIC RIVER DEVELOPMENT A start has already been made on implementing some phases of plans for marine, park, passive and active recrea- tional facilities in the onetime tidal estuary which the new Earhart Dam transformed in 1966 from unsightly, odorous tidal flats into a fresh water expanse. Construction began on a $196,000 boathouse and docks on the Somerville shoreline off Route 93, patterned after the highly-successful sailing program of Community Boating on the Charles, founded in 1936. A similar program at Pleasure Bay, South Boston, opened during the summer of 1972. In an adjacent area, a $127,000 site development is underway, creating a 2-acre, landscaped park containing 180 trees, benches, flagstone terrace, walks and parking lot. Across the river in Medford, the Hormel Stadium com- plex is being enlarged by a new skating rink, along with expanded parking space, an additional access road and land- scaping. A newly -completed rugby -soccer field in this area, described as the only full-sized rugby field in the country, was inaugurated by an international, 6-team competition. The basin water is being upgraded further by completion of a large marginal conduit for combined storm water and sewage overflows and a storm detention and chlorination treatment installation. On the Charles River, Charlesbank Park in Boston's West End has been revitalized by installing 2 lighted tennis courts, a new football-soccer field, relocation of the base- ball field and bleachers and landscaping. Upriver, an athletic field house was built at Daly Recreation Center on Nonan- tum Road, Brighton-Newton. A unique site has provided a 4-acre park and recreation area in Jamaica Plain. The location is in the cleared cor- ridor of the abandoned Southwest Expressway project, which is expected to be a forerunner of other community uses of the 6-mile corridor. An aesthetic and environmental lift has come from a continuing tree and shrub planting program. Over 2000 additional plantings were placed in parks and along road- sides and waterways, swelling the number to 10,000 in 3 years. Just over the horizon are additional significant projects for expanding the parks system, highlighted by an indoor schoolboy track and sports complex and a riverfront park along the Neponset River in Dorchester. Selection of the site is being implemented by Commission action to acquire 36 acres with 4600 feet of shoreline and 7 acres offered by the City of Boston at the old Hallet Street dump in the Neponset section. A large-scale restoration of the onetime great Riverside URBAN BACKGROUND of Beacon Hill and downtown Boston provides a unique setting for sailing on Charles River. (Boston Globe photo by Ellis Herwig) <<L SKI LIFT at Blue Hills Reservation Park along Charles River in Newton and Weston is in the planning stage. At Stony Brook Reservation in the West Roxbury and Hyde Park sections of Boston, an early start is due on an extensive face-lift and further development, including a wide variety of recreational opportunities. Moving along, too, is design work on restoring and de- veloping the Magazine Beach recreational area off Memorial Drive in Cambridge and installing additional facilities at Constitution Beach in East Boston. A low-keyed treatment stressing preservation of its natural state is destined for Cutler Park in Needham, part of the 825-acre reservation of woodlands, marshes and meadows extending into Newton and Dedham, near Charles River. Scheduled for award shortly is a contract for seawall re- construction to protect the shoreline of Georges Island. In recognition of growing popularity of bicycling for physical fitness, recreation and commuting, design work is proceeding to complete bikeways around Charles River Basin. Bicycle paths are planned also for the Mystic River Basin shoreline, Stony Brook Reservation and other loca- tions. Fishermen are not being overlooked in the park system expansion. By next year they will be casting their lines from a new recreational fishing pier at the Lynn Harbor mouth of Saugus River, MDC's second salt water pier for anglers. The other is at Castle Island, South Boston. For fresh-water sportsmen, a water quality program was launched at 9 ponds to improve fishing and other recreation activity. These efforts provided for chemical treatment, mechanical weed harvesting and aeration techniques to correct weed and algae problems. Intensive, Diversified Programs Widen Recreation Opportunities Coincident with expanding facilities and open space, the doors to recreational opportunities opened wider through new types of activity and growing utilization of the parks system. The growth of programs and special events has developed from a policy of supplementing MDC's own efforts with those of municipal agencies and organizations. Typifying the diversification of uses, horse and dog shows have been held at Blue Hills Reservation, nature walks at major reservations, an international rugby tourna- ment at Hormel Stadium, a soap box derby at Middlesex Fells Reservation and a 4-H Fair at Franklin Park Zoo. Pleasure Bay in South Boston was the scene of an Aqua- Thing program and a Charles River Festival was held along the Esplanade and at Hatch Shell. Off-season activity by communities has been encouraged at skating rinks to create vacation fun for youngsters, rather than leaving the costly facilities idle. At one rink, free ten- nis lessons were provided by United States Sports Clubs. Street hockey tournaments held forth at 3 rinks, sponsored by the National Street Hockey Association. Over 800 youngsters from several cities and towns enjoyed a variety of activity at the East Boston rink, which later accom- modated a unique off-season event — a community reunion following a Columbus Day parade. Day camps and a summer coffeehouse for young people were other ex- amples of rink activity. Greater public use of MDC waters scored outstanding progress with the launching of a new sailing program, a construction start on a second sailing facility and the begin- ning of a resurgence of canoeing on the Charles River. Sailing at Pleasure Bay, South Boston, took off with a big splash in the late summer of 1972, involving 400 neophyte enthusiasts, mostly youngsters. Participation was doubled during the 1973 season, highlighted by an inter- scholastic regatta with 14 schools in competition. A similar program is scheduled for 1974 on the Somerville shore of Mystic River Basin. The new sailing locations are designed to serve the north and south regions of the Parks District, supplementing the program operated for MDC by Community Boating, Inc., on the Charles. Potential for these facilities can be seen in the growth of Community Boating, whose junior and senior membership has grown from 3008 to 5141 in a 10-year period. The number jumped 1007 in the past 2 years. Besides in- struction classes and pleasure sailing on the river, 814 members participated in 29 trips to Boston Harbor islands, including 6 overnight camping excursions for seniors. ' m ~* l * K ^^1 it "* ~v^ ^H 1 1 "1 1-. SUH 1 tBl H PI m __ fm L HOCKEY ACT/ON, GRACEFUL FIGURE-SKATING and just skating for fun are enjoyed at network of 25 rinks. PROGRAMS FOR ELDERLY, HANDICAPPED The canoeing revival on the Charles has begun by utiliz- ing boat berths, docks and space at the river level of the MDC Police Riverside Station in Auburndale for canoe rentals. This is seen as a forerunner of a canoeing system at 14 locations eventually in the 30-mile stretch between Wellesley and the Boston Esplanade. A helping hand has been extended by providing recrea- tional outlets for senior citizens, special children, blind students and patients at a veterans hospital. For the elderly, half-price fees were established for week- day golf and the Children's Zoo, as well as exclusive use of 4 swimming pools at specified times and sailing at Pleasure Bay. Students from Perkins School for the Blind and retarded children have also been given sailing ex- perience. At the new year-round pool in Weymouth, a swimming program for retarded and cerebral palsy children from the South Shore was inaugurated. Another pool in West Rox- bury was used as a rehabilitation technique for spinal injury and orthopedic patients at nearby Veterans Ad- ministration Hospital. A turnout of 1,872,221 at 24 skating rinks in service during the 1972-73 season fell below last year's record high of 2 million, even though 4 new rinks were opened in December. The reduction was seen primarily in general skating, which drew 797,221, a decrease of 218,994. This was attributed largely to an open winter with unusually good natural ice skating conditions. Another factor was opening rinks 2 weeks later than in 1972 — mid-October for fully -enclosed rinks and mid-November for others — due to a budget staffing cut. However, the schedule still repre- sented an earlier opening than seasons prior to 1972. A total of 19,369 rental hours was made available for hockey, speed and figure skating and other groups, accom- modating about 1 million skaters. An estimated 75,000 participated in free physical education and special class programs conducted during school hours. In cooperation with Boston's School Department 11 rinks were utilized for an open campus program. Figure skating instruction was opened to adults at 13 of 20 rinks used by the Metropolitan Figure Skating School, previously limited to youngsters, age 7 to 14. Conflicting pressures for ice time between youth versus school hockey groups was settled in favor of the youngsters receiving priority for afternoon hours and older participants on school teams being assigned early morning and late even- ing hours. Next season some local recreation departments will be assuming a major role in scheduling ice time and programs for children. Clearly, the most popular summer-time activity is bathing at 17 ocean beaches and four fresh-water facilities, drawing in excess of 15 million, according to estimates. Attendance at the network of 19 pools was 473,184. an increase of 116.116 over 1972. Athletics took over baseball, softball and Little League fields in solid bookings from April through September. Three stadiums, Dilboy in Somerville, Hormel in Medford and Daly in Brighton, accommodated many high school events, and Daly was also used for Boston State College home games. Hormel's rugby field was heavily scheduled and many school track practice sessions and season meets were held at Dilbov and Hormel stadiums. Fifty-five recreation leaders staffed 27 playgrounds and the Pleasure Bay sailing program. Fishermen had a good year in MDC waters. A welcome development saw Quabbin Reservoir rise in elevation suf- ficiently to reactivate an access location which had been closed by low water since 1966, one of three available to anglers. At Cutler Park in Needham, a new public access was opened, leading to a 54-acre pond where sampling has indicated unusual fishing. All-time state records were smashed at Quabbin by catches of an 11-pound walleye pike and a 17-pound, 13- ounce lake trout. Quabbin's fishing areas drew 59,862 persons, up 5% over the previous year, and use of private boats rose 3% to 12,696. HATCH SHELL ATTRACTS 300,000 Performances at Hatch Shell continued to grow in variety and attendance. Thirty free events in the popular Charles River Basin riverside and park setting attracted well over 300,000, who enjoyed diversified entertainment rang- ing from traditional Esplanade Pops concerts of Boston Symphony Orchestra and a Bach in the Basin Festival to jazz, folk dance troupes and old-time movies. Eighty-six band concerts were arranged at beaches and park reserva- tions. A few miles upstream, free summer theater returned for the third season at the outdoor amphitheater on the site of the former Metropolitan Boston Arts Center off Soldiers Field Road, Allston. The non-profit Publick Theater also staged its second series of indoor performances at the former Institute of Contemporary Art Building, adjacent to the summer theater site. The building and grounds have been renamed in honor of former Governor Christian A. Herter. NA TURE STUDY for students shown examining fungus specimen near MDC's Trailside Museum, picnics and golf at Ponkapoag course are among activities at Blue Hills Reservation. Family Togetherness at Rinks Refreshing togetherness was much in evidence at skating rinks last season. Family skating programs organized by municipal recreation departments and Parent-Teacher Associations attracted thousands of parents and children, including awkward adults who donned skates for the first time in many years. Boston Harbor's scenic islands have become a major at- traction. Georges Island and its historic Fort Warren lured 142,500 persons, including 482 outings, 80 camping groups and individuals transported by 5 boat lines on scheduled or charter trips and by private craft. Visitors were offered guided tours, picnic areas, playground and overnight dock- ing facilities, indoor and outdoor outing areas, with police, guides, maintenance and other personnel on hand. At less- developed nearby Lovell's Island, 20,000 persons enjoyed 105 outings or overnight camping. Off the Hull shore, Ped- docks Island was the scene of 35 outings and camping groups. The island, acquired in 1970, is available on a permit basis, pending further development of public facilities. Provocative education and stimulating recreation go hand in hand in 3 popular programs for school systems in the Parks District. These activities offer classroom groups free museum visits, films, lectures and demonstra- tions in curriculum-related subjects. Participating at the Museum of Science were 70,686 individuals — an increase of 923 over 1972 - ranging from 137 for Nahant to 19,085 for Boston. A choice of 11 different science lecture- demonstrations was available. The Children's Museum drew 29,178 in school and community groups, up 2167 over last year, and Trailside Museum had 14,980, a rise of 5327. ' i ii ' i * / i 'n i i n ^ii .- CHARLES RIVER SHORELINE is lined with varied park, recreation and athletic facilities. Among them are the famed Hatch Shell and this typical playground. (Photo by Jack Maley, MDC) Among other activities were: Ponkapoag's 36-hole layout in Canton, 97,237 rounds, up 6394 over 1972; Martin Memorial's 18-hole course in Weston, 41,245 rounds, an increase of 1394. Major events at Ponkapoag included the CYO tournament with 505 entries, New England Junior Golf Championship, 630 entries, and the second annual Massachusetts Public Links Championship, 80 competitors. Zoos - Franklin Park, Boston, estimated attendance 400,000; Walter D. Stone, Stoneham, estimated 300,000; Franklin Park Children's Zoo, 192,784; Boston Zoological Society's Zoomobile, 210 appearances; MDC Traveling Zoo, 111 appearances during summer season. Trailside Museum, Canton, 83,840 Bunker Hill Monument, 53,222 Blue Hills Ski Area, Canton-Milton, 20,000 skiers and 15,000 at ski school. Boston Children's Theater Stagemobile, 2 plays at each of 10 locations during school vacation. REVERE BEACH is the most heavily-attended of MDC's 17 ocean beaches. (Lynn Item photo by Bob Crosby) "Bird's World" Project Underway In Dramatic Zoo Development Transforming Franklin Park Zoo into the modern con- cept of a free-moving environment for animals and birdlife has taken a big step forward with work well underway on a dramatic "Bird's World." The project is designed to rehabilitate the dilapidated original flight cage built in 1912. incorporating a completely new interior and an elevated walkway where visitors mingle with flying birds among trees, plants, waterfalls and water- ways. Adjacent to the avian - , the exhibit extends into a three-level system of pools and a natural waterfall containing a wide variety of water and marsh birds. A reconstructed birdhouse is another phase of the SI. 6 million complex, where interior displays will show bird col- lections in their indigenous environment, supplemented by graphic signs and other educational aids. The area is being enhanced by a big landscaping program, including over 5,000 trees, shrubs and other foliage. The complex, scheduled for completion in 1974, is the first major development undertaken by MDC and the Boston Zoological Society since BZS assumed management in 1970. The organization also operates MDC's Children's Zoo at Franklin Park, Walter D. Stone Zoo in Stoneham and Trailside Museum in the Blue Hills Reservation. The multi-faceted program at these facilities has been re- flected in higher attendance figures, reaching nearly 1 million in 1973, an increase of almost 100.000 over 1972. Among these improvements, reconstruction of the range area and barns at Franklin Park has been completed, featur- ing 8 new moated exhibits which eliminate fences and other barriers and provide an unobstructed view of free-running hooved animals. Steady progress has been made in improving and enlarg- ing the animal collection at Franklin Park and Stone zoos. ZOO INHABITANTS include otters, penguins, sea lion silhouetted against sky and rhinocerous. emphasizing replacement of single animals with breeding groups or pairs, as well as acquiring rare and endangered animals. This is an effort to protect species from extinction and also yield greater return from sale of offspring, thus providing funds for further upgrading of the animal collection. Steps have been taken to provide conveniences for visitors. Two new service centers have been opened, in- cluding rest rooms, refreshment stands and tables and chairs. A soft-tired trackless train has been installed as a combi- nation lecture tour and transportation system. Fun and education have also moved beyond zoo walls on a big scale, as the BZS Zoomobile traveled to display and explain species of small animals. There were 210 ap- pearances, 108 of them in classrooms to provide a learning experience for schoolchildren. During the summer season, the MDC Traveling Zoo made 111 visits to parks and play- grounds throughout the Metropolitan Parks District. At Stone Zoo, efforts have centered on upgrading and modifying exhibits, such as rebuilding the penguin display, extensive planting and landscaping of the aviary, adding animals to the African veldt scene and a new exhibit of local water birds. The grounds have been embellished with more trees and flowers and a picnic area. Still ahead is Franklin Park Zoo's unique centerpiece — an innovative, indoor-outdoor zoological exhibit in which i^iif ^ 1 r ^W '■^Tfr-'SWB ^^ aBEJHi B """1 Hf * "^LJmW i i^K ~-~^±%r<t&EGmn KJ5'* I| 0" ■■ ""■"' large land animals can be seen all year. The concept provides for natural settings and un- obstructed animal display of African wildlife through the use of hidden moats and scenic background. The facility will stress an educational and interpretive program to foster greater understanding and preservation of the environment and the inter-relationships between mankind and other living creatures. A big educational feature is the inclusion of an auditorium, reference library, classrooms, teacher resource center and an audio-visual center. A feasibility study has now been completed and sche- matic designs are in progress. An $8 million allocation has been made from MDC's 1972 environmental capital outlay bond issue, while other fi- nancing is being sought from Federal agencies. An intensive drive for $6 million from private sources is also being planned by BZS. 10 HISTORIC SITES are being embellished for Bicentennial celebration, among them Fort Independence on Castle Island in South Boston and Dorothy Quincy House in Quincy. (Fort photo by Aerial Photos of N. E.) Historic Sites Being Enhanced For Bicentennial Celebration The coming Bicentennial observance has stimulated activity in enhancing historic landmarks in the parks system for the benefit of an influx of visitors and residents. As a prime magnet for the celebration. Bunker Hill Battle- field and Monument is being given a multi-lingual, electronic voice to relate the portentous events of June 17. 1775. This is a system being installed to provide a narrator's de- scription of the battle through wireless headsets in simulated voices of Colonial and British officers while visitors view nearby locations associated with the event. A similar installation is planned for Fort Warren on Georges Island in Boston Harbor, tracing its role in defending the harbor in all American wars and its use as a Civil War prison for Confederate civil and military personnel. A descriptive narration will also be used at Fort Independence on Castle Island. South Boston, relating a military history stretching to pre-Revolutionary War years. Tree planting has dressed up Bunker Hill grounds and 11 future upgrading calls for landscaping and improved exterior lighting, new historical exhibits and refurbishing the lodge at the monument base. A master plan for restoring Fort Independence is well advanced, designed to create interior exhibits and a view of Boston Harbor from the fort's ramparts. One phase provides for an archaeological investigation to recover artifacts. A $1 million allocation for the program also covers develop- ment of recreational areas at Castle Island and adjoining Pleasure Bay. The fort's potential for dramatic portrayal of history was demonstrated by a week-end bivouac of a detachment of the Brigade of the American Revolution in full Colonial Army uniform and equipment. Another historic landmark, the Dorothy Quincy House in Quincy, is undergoing a facelift, including both structural and landscaping renovations to restore its original ap- pearance, based on research of the interior and exterior color and architectural details. A memorial to intriguing historical lore — the crumbling, 30-foot Norumbega tower overlooking Charles River in Weston — has been dismantled and restored, stone by stone. It was erected in 1889 in tribute to Leif Erikson, the Norse explorer who is believed by some historians to have ex- plored the Charles River in 1000 A.D. and led Norsemen in building a settlement at Norumbega. BUNKER HILL MONUMENT and Fort Warren on Georges Island are expected to be major attractions during Bicentennial celebration. (Monument photo by Jack Maley, MDC) Open Space Expansion Stressed To Meet Growing Urban Needs Preserving existing open space and expanding land- holdings for recreational and ecological purposes have become increasingly vital to urban population needs. The Parks District holdings have now reached 14,332 acres. Reflecting an energetic policy in this direction, MDC has enlarged Breakheart Reservation by acquiring the 50-acre Boy Scout property at Camp Nihan in Saugus. The area is being used primarily by organizations on a permit basis for overnight camping and day camp purposes, serving such groups as Boy Scouts, Camp Fire girls and special programs for youngsters. Aggressive action has been demanded in at least two instances. A vigorous, last-ditch battle led to acquisition of a prized, 4-acre shore property on Charles River in Needham, known as Village Falls, which had been bought by a private group. A 10-year extension of a lease of 8 acres on Chickatawbut Hill in the Blue Hills, intended as a center for youthful offenders, was also blocked. The drive for other shorefront sites on the Charles saved for public use a 4V2-acre area in Newton and a 2'/2-acre tract at the Natick-Wellesley line. At the Stony Brook Reserva- tion in the Hyde Park section of Boston, a 5-acre tract was acquired from the city. Further progress was made toward expanding holdings at Mother Brook in Boston's Readville section and Dedham for recreation and flood control pur- poses. Negotiations are continuing for purchase of 30 acres of surplus Federal land on the southerly end of Deer Island. 12 PROJECTED CHARLES RIVER DAM in artist's conception shows (left to right) MDC Police patrol boat facility, 3 navi- gation locks, pumping station and Paul Revere Landing Park providing a link to USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) docked at Charlestown Navy Yard. Another major benefit is virtual elimination of salt water intrusion into the basin and its pollutant effect. Clean-Water Progress Seen In Harbor, River Programs Movement toward clean-water goals in Boston Harbor and its tributaries is showing marked progress, coinciding with a start on a far-reaching study of wastewater disposal solutions for the Metropolitan Sewerage District through the year 2050. Significant results already achieved in upgrading quality of harbor waters are being broadened with an ongoing program of rehabilitating defective tidegates at sewerage line overflows, plans for sludge disposal at treatment plants and steps to develop more advanced methods of sewage treatment. Along the Charles and Mystic rivers, new treatment techniques and miles of huge trunk sewer lines are pro- ceeding to alleviate pollution and, at the same time, reduce influx of pollutants into the harbor. Clearing the way for strides in these directions was the $110 million environmental capital outlay budget of 1972, earmarking $83 million for pollution abatement projects, in addition to $7 million for an innovative clean water pro- gram on the Charles voted the same year. Available, also, is a $13 million authorization for the present Charles River estuary which will become a part of the lower basin when the new dam is constructed. Much of the program is designed to meet wastewater treatment standards for Boston Harbor as outlined by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, including pro- posed conversion of the Deer Island and Nut Island plants from primary to secondary treatment. In one phase of the harbor program. MDC is moving toward eliminating disposal of digested sludge at outfalls in the outer harbor emanating from Deer Island and Nut Island plants. A study of alternatives by an MDC task force and a consultant engineering firm concluded that incineration was the most desirable method from the viewpoint of cost benefit and environmental and sanitation solutions. The system would also incorporate heat recovery for generating electric power. Next step is preparation of plans and specifi- cations. Rehabilitation of defective tidegates is Hearing comple- tion to remedy a significant source of inner harbor pollution and eliminate an adverse effect on sewage treatment at Deer Island. Based on an inspection of 187 tidegates in Boston's 13 main drainage system and 42 in East Boston, Charlestown and Chelsea, 46 installations have been corrected at an ap- proximate cost of $400,000. About 50 required no repairs. Malfunctioning tidegates permit intrusion of millions of gallons of sea water into the Boston and MDC sewerage systems at high tide, diminishing normal capacity and flushing sewage into the harbor on each tide cycle. A milestone in pollution abatement is due early in 1974 when the last-remaining sewer line continuously discharging untreated sewage into the harbor will be shut down. A daily flow of 1 million gallons from Quincy's Squantum section is scheduled for diversion from Boston's Moon Island outlet by activating the new $2.7 million Squantum Force Main, a 3-3/4 mile link to the MDC Nut Island Sewage Treatment Plant in Quincy Bay. These developments supplement the 1968 activation of the Deer Island primary treatment plant, a keystone of MDC's sewerage system, which has had a marked effect on improving harbor water quality. Evidence of these results has included re-opening of Winthrop town beaches and shell- fish areas in the area, as well as a dramatic drop in median coliform concentrations near Deer Island outfalls and a substantial impact on the harbor's bacterial level. NEW TECHNIQUES FOR CHARLES RIVER On the Charles River, clean-water techniques are pointing toward novel instream treatment methods, along with build- ing traditional pollution control facilities. An advanced installation has begun operation at Storrow (Photo by Tom Reilly, MDC) Lagoon on Boston's Esplanade shoreline, utilizing a chemical method for removal of color and pollutants, mostly flowing from swamps and urban runoff, such as streets and parking lots and dumps. The small pilot plant will determine the feasibility of a full-scale facility to treat up-river flow into the basin. In another in-stream approach, MDC has authorized design and installing experimental aeration equipment to deal with localized pollutants caused mainly by storm run- off. The first site would be near Havey Beach in West Roxbury, with the prospect of other locations along the river basin. A unique magnetic process operating from a floating barge may provide an additional method of cleaning the Charles, particularly the pool of stagnant salt water on the basin bottom caused by harbor inflow through the Charles River Dam. Preparation of preliminary design and cost estimates has been approved. Further influx of salt water will be controlled by the new $41 million Charles River Dam to be built below North Station by the Army Corps of Engineers in cooperation with MDC. The multi-purpose facility, scheduled for con- struction start next spring, will provide flood protection, improve water quality, relieve navigation congestion at the old dam by incorporating three locks and include a fish ladder. Additional pollution abatement is planned in the river estuary area. This project will extend sewer relief conduits on the Boston and Cambridge shorelines to a new storm detention, chlorination and pumping station for ultimate 14 CHARLES RIVER UPLIFT takes many forms. Among them are a massively -equipped storm detention and ch/orin- ation station above B. U. Bridge, and this typical 8-foot- dia meter sewer conduit (left page) and canoeing cleanup volunteers. (Photo by Tom Reilly, MDC) discharge of treated overflows to tidewater beyond the new dam. In another facet of the clean-water program, polluting overflows will be cut back by completion of a large North Charles relief sewer in Cambridge at an estimated $13.2 million cost. Construction has entered the third of a four- phased project which will stretch 3 miles from the vicinity of Mt. Auburn Hospital to Main Street. The sewer line, with pipes as big as 8'/2 feet in diameter, is designed to enlarge existing capacity for carrying off combined storm water and sewage overflows to Deer Island, along with a link to the new Cottage Farm Stormwater Treatment Station near B. U. Bridge. The Cottage Farm plant is an advanced method of al- leviating overflows of storm water and sewage from com- bined sewers of Cambridge, Brookline and the South Charles, which has been in operation for two years. The treatment process provides for settling and chlorination before dis- charging effluent into the river and subsequent flushing of solids from detention tanks into sewer lines for treatment at Deer Island. The facility was activated 44 times in 1973 and processed 462 million gallons of excess flow. Its capac- ity is 233 million gallons per day. A similar installation becomes operative this fall in the Mystic River Basin, as part of a $1.6 million project to deal with overflows of storm water and sewage discharging from Somerville's combined sewerage system. The Somerville marginal conduit was designed to carry the excess flow to tidewater below the new Amelia Earhart Dam. The storm detention and treatment process features innovative auto- matic controls and a unique hypochlorite generator for producing chlorine. As a final phase of the Earhart Dam's flood control func- tions, 3 large diesel engines, pumping units and related equipment have been ordered at a cost of SI. 6 million, preparatory to a construction start next year on a S5 mil- lion structure to house the equipment. In addition to flood control, the program has wiped out odorous, unsightly tidal flats in the estuary by maintaining a constant fresh water level and paved the way for devel- oping the basin area for varied park, sports and marine recre- ational opportunities. Cleanup of debris and vegetation and dredging of Alewife Brook from Cambridge to Mystic River was completed, while treatment of aquatic weeds, algae and chlorides con- tinued on Upper Mystic Lake. In Maiden, a dual-purpose $7.1 million flood control project and an adjoining interceptor trunk sewer were in the final stage on Saugus Branch Brook, a tributary of Maiden River, which in turn empties into Mystic River Basin. An- other job to eliminate flooding at West End Brook was completed under a $1.4 million contract. While short-range goals of MDC's 43-member Sewerage District are being implemented, the comprehensive engi- neering-management study of wastewater needs through 2050 has swung into action. Its scope has been broadened Volunteer Cleanup Effort Easing Litter Problems Off-season accumulation of litter and junk along MDC waterways, park reservations and beaches still pose a problem, but citizen concern over this blemish of the environment has been much in evidence and apparently productive. Volunteer cleanup drives have continued for the fourth year, drawing thousands of conservation- minded adults, college and high school groups and youngsters as participants. Their efforts are producing results, according to the Charles River Watershed Association, which coordinated the annual river clean- up in 1973. A spokesman described "much better conditions than ever before and a more positive attitude toward the Charles on the part of at least some offenders." Best evidence of reduced litter was the 103 truck- loads carried away from the Charles, about one-third of the previous year's pickup. 15 HUGE FLOOD PROTECTION PUMP is one of 6 to be installed in new Charles River Dam and Locks now under construction. Pumps can discharge 3.7 million gallons per minute of flood runoff from Charles Basin into Boston Harbor against high tides. (Photo by Army Corps of Engineers) to 109 communities and participation by 5 other govern- ment agencies, with major emphasis on open planning public meetings. The program is considering engineering, economic and wide-ranging environmental aspects. Among them are population projections, land disposal of sewage, treatment techniques, including land disposal of effluent, re-use and reclamation; industrial waste, geographical limits of sewerage systems, "fair share" charges for communities and industry and administrative structures. The $2 million wastewater management planning pro- gram, jointly financed by MDC and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is directed by the 2 financing agencies and the Metropolitan Area Planning Council, State Division of Water Pollution Control, Office of State Planning and Management and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Coordination and management is being provided by MDC's Environmental Planning Office, a newly-created unit reflecting the growing emphasis on environmental concern. Broad Water Supply Study Prepares 50-year Blueprint Detailed studies of long-range programs to expand water supply and upgrade and extend distribution lines have been pushed into the forefront during fiscal 1973. Impetus for a clear-cut blueprint to meet growing needs has come from a $1 million allocation for comprehensive planning, underlined by current consumption beyond safe yield and the prospect of an enlarged Metropolitan Water District. A newly-formed Metropolitan Water Supply Develop- ment Committee is conducting the program, coordinated by MDC and including representatives of the U.S. Corps of Engineers, State Department of Public Health, State Water Resources Commission, Metropolitan Area Planning Council and public members. While the overall study will look ahead at least 50 years, plans are well advanced for filling demands of the next decade or more, principally by flood-skimming excess flow of the Connecticut River and a major distribution tunnel project in its final stages. An interim plan is being prepared for expediting service south of Boston to the towns of Avon, Holbrook, Randolph and Stoughton and increasing the supply already being pro- vided by MDC to Canton. Previously, a feasibility report had been completed for these communities, as well as Braintree and Weymouth. An intensive study of the upper Sudbury River water- shed is underway to determine the potential supply from the 75 square mile area by tapping and treating freshet flows. The MDC's Sudbury reservoir supply presently draws from a 22 square mile watershed. Water Division engineers also participated in a water supply survey covering 40 municipalities in conjunction with the Central Massachusetts Regional Planning Commission. The report concluded that future needs of most of these communities can be met from groundwater sources and also surface water where necessary. Increased diversion of the Ware River and tapping Quaboag River were mentioned as possibilities for feeding Quabbin if greatly enlarged MDC supply is needed in Central Massachusetts. Meanwhile, preparations were being made to study ex- isting distribution facilities for determining methods of upgrading and expanding the system and another program to examine water use, with emphasis on reducing waste and developing other conservation techniques. Two factors brought some relief to the water supply situation in the form of above average rainfall during 1972 and 1973 and a slight drop in consumption, which reversed an upward trend. But engineers warned against complacency for the 16 QUABBIN RESERVOIR'S MAGNITUDE, stretching 18 miles in length, provides most of the Water District's supply, while its surrounding wide-ranging forest and hills retain an unspoiled wilderness setting. (Aerial photo by Jack Maley, MDC) future, based on analysis of long-range statistics covering average precipitation, population trends and particularly water use, which is still running above safe yield, according to long-term calculations. MDC's principal water supply at Quabbin Reservoir rose to 89.3% of capacity as of June 30, 1973 and 5.85 feet below maximum elevation — highest level in 10 years. A year previously, Quabbin had only risen to 70.7% of capacity. The 39 square mile reservoir has not been full since 1961, the beginning of a 6-year drought which lowered the giant reservoir to 45% of capacity by 1967. Precipita- tion had been below normal for 9 of the 12 vears, prior to 1972. Quabbin's level was swelled in 1972 by 10.34 inches of precipitation above the 44-inch annual average and an ex- cess of 7.5 inches in 1973. Consumption had soared to a daily average of 321.6 million gallons in 1971 — a record high — falling to 318.7 mg in 1972 and 316 mg during 1973. The fall-off was attributed to lessened summertime demand in the two wet years. With these periods still well in excess of the system's long-range safe yield of 300 mgd, the urgency of supple- menting supply sources remained acute. The specter of running short of water in the early '80's persists. Preparations are going forward for augmenting Quabbin sources by flood-skimming, under specified conditions, about l r f of the Connecticut River's excess freshet flow which now wastes into the Atlantic. The plan will bolster MDC's annual supply by an average of 72 mgd — nearly 25% of the current safe yield. It pro- vides for a 10-mile aqueduct link between Quabbin and the Northfield Mt. pumped storage reservoir built by Northeast Utilities for hydro-electric power production. Terms of an agreement with Northeast are being negotiated. To expedite the $35 million project. MDC has already prepared aerial surveys, mapping, field work, engineering studies of the aqueduct route, borings and right of way requirements. Flood-skimming in other locations is also in prospect to meet anticipated demands for the '90*s and into the next century. Besides the Sudbury River potential, a recent study pointed toward tapping the Tully and Millers rivers in Central Massachusetts and eventually using a cleaned-up Merrimack River. These possibilities grew out of an inter-agency study indicating an estimated rise in demands from the current 316 mgd up to 475 mgd through 1990. The future needs 17 were based on supplementing local sources of 41 communi- ties in addition to 33 members of the Metropolitan Water District and 10 others served under special agreements. The law stipulates that MDC must admit to the Water District any community within 10 miles of the State House and any other municipality within 15 miles which the Com- mission "can reasonably supply." Eight of the 41 potential members are within 10 miles, 23 in the 10-15mile zone and 10 beyond 15 miles with no option other than MDC for future supply. Among the 8 listed as prospective partial-user mem- bers within the 10-mile zone, the city of Woburn has now joined the Water District as the 33rd member and the town of Wellesley is finalizing an agreement. The new facilities feeding Woburn will have sufficient capacity for eventually serving the towns of Reading and North Reading and also filling future needs of Stoneham and Wakefield, both present members of the Water District. Under construction is a $1,396,000 pipeline linking Woburn with Spot Pond Reservoir where a new pumping station will be built. A big leap forward in enlarging the water distribution system is scheduled for late 1974 with completion of the $19.1 million Dorchester Tunnel — largest distribution pipe- line project in many years. The 10-foot diameter tunnel runs 6.3 miles from the City Tunnel in Chestnut Hill, at the Brighton-Brookline line, to Dorchester Lower Mills. It is designed to feed 300 mgd to the Southern Water District, supplementing existing capacity of 105 million gallons a day and improve water pressure for 800,000 residents in Brighton, Dorchester, Hyde Park, Roxbury, Mattapan, South Boston, West Roxbury, Brook- line, Quincy, Milton, Canton and Norwood. Climaxing 5 years of drilling, blasting and boring 220 to 350 feet below the surface, the tunnel will also pave the way for supplying prospective district members south of Boston. The race against mounting demands saw another large distribution pipeline completed — a 48-inch main running 2.75 miles in Somerville and Medford at a cost of $4.2 mil- lion. The line increases available quantity and reinforces pressure for an estimated 325,000 residents of Medford, Somerville, Arlington, Belmont and Cambridge. An intricate $1.3 million project was finished under the Chelsea River, where a 36-inch water main was installed in the ship channel, replacing one of the 2 under-river lines serving East Boston. The new line was required at a lower level because of the growth in the size of oil tankers using the channel. Preparations for fluoridation as a dental health measure were in progress. An engineering study of chemicals and procedures was completed and the Commission promptly authorized preparation of plans and specifications for design of plant and equipment at a cost of $1 million. The technique will include the addition of alkaline chemicals to HUGE DORCHESTER TUNNEL nearing completion is 6.3 miles long and 10 feet in diameter, the largest pipeline addition to the distribution system in many years. adjust the pH factor and prevent increased corrosivity re- sulting from fluoridation. This process will also alleviate a problem in some older neighborhoods where acidic (soft) water may presently be affecting lead pipes. While annual operating expense will run about $600,000, fluoridation on a district-wide basis will provide a substantial saving for member communities as compared to individual fluoridating systems. Many millions of dollars will be saved, too, in dental care for persons under the age of 20 by re- ducing tooth decay, according to the Massachusetts Dental Society. The program was launched on the basis of a ruling by the Attorney General, who said that MDC must fluoridate its water supply in view of favorable action by a majority of Boards of Health in the Water District. Health officials in 28 of 33 member communities have gone on record for fluoridation. On the financial side, MDC's longtime efforts were being renewed to obtain legislative approval for a pay-as-you-go method of meeting Water District costs, rather than the provision for piling up debt and interest obligations to de- fray annual deficits which has been in effect since 1945. This practice accounts for $54.5 million of the water system's $130 million outstanding bond indebtedness as of June 30, 1973. 18 Traffic Congestion, Safety Needs Challenge MDC Roadway System Smoothing movement and improving safety for vehicular and pedestrian traffic in Metropolitan Boston has become an increasingly difficult goal. The problem has been intensified by constantly mounting volume, peak-hour strain by commuting motorists and a trend toward minimizing growth of expressway -type access into the core areas. Much of the responsibility lies with MDC which patrols and maintains many main arteries and parkways within Route 128 and provides policing of the Northeast Express- way, Central Artery and Southeast Expressway, which are owned and maintained by the State Department of Public Works. Although traffic solutions have turned to expanded mass transit, there is still a pressing need for improving MDC thoroughfares, relieving congested traffic and dealing with strained and weakened bridges, while maintaining and en- hancing scenic parkway values. Construction is proceeding on replacement of the worn- out, unsafe, 69-year-old Prison Point Bridge between East Cambridge and Charlestown, with a spring 1974 opening planned. The project is being built for MDC by the State Department of Public Works, an arrangement which quali- fied for 100% Federal reimbursement of the $3.9 million cost under a railroad bridge replacement program. The 4-lane structure is connected to the recently re- constructed Rutherford Avenue in Charlestown and includes a pedestrian overpass for improved access to the new Bunker Hill Community College. The bridge also ties in with a major traffic relief program for the Northern Artery system from East Cambridge to Wellington Circle, Medford. Another focal point is Morrissey Boulevard, serving as the automobile gateway to the new University of Massachu- setts-Boston campus at Columbia Point, Dorchester. A comprehensive area-wide intersection improvement effort was undertaken along the boulevard in cooperation with the City of Boston, State DPW, the university and community groups. Fourteen intersections were assembled in one improvement package for 1974 completion. The improvements include changes at Freeport Street, the university entrance, Kosciuszko and Pulaski Circles and Old Colony Avenue. In addition, the old Patten's Cove culvert is being replaced by a stronger, modern structure. Signalized intersections will be coordinated to provide smooth traffic flow with improved pedestrian access across busy Morrissey Boulevard at various locations. This is another project proceeding in conjunction with the State DPW. Federal funds are being requested for the $1.2 mil- lion job through DPW. SOLDIERS FIELD ROAD in Boston, with Larz Ander- son Bridge in background, handles heavy traffic but retains park and scenic features along the Charles River. A major parkway, beach erosion and landscaping pro- ject is underway on Quincy Shore Drive to improve safety, pedestrian access and open space amenities. The first phase, slated for completion shortly, includes new traffic signals, a flood control culvert, trunk line sewer connection and improved roadway profile. This will be followed by a new median, resurfacing, street-lighting and better safety control of parking and pedestrian access. Several significant roadway reconstruction and major re- surfacing projects were completed or substantially under- way. Among them were major sections of the Jamaicaway. Riverway and Memorial Drive and a complete redesign and reconstruction of Greenough Boulevard adjacent to the Watertown Arsenal and Charles River. The riverside boul- evard work incorporates new drainage, curbing, pedestrian and bicycle paths and landscaping, due for completion next year. A severe problem arising from rundown and over- burdened bridges still faces MDC, handicapped by lack of adequate financing which is being sought again this year from the State Highway Fund. Some of these are structures dating to the horse and buggy days and others built for pleasure vehicles on park- way systems and later pressed into service for general traffic and trucking. With the increase in traffic loads and truck weights up to 19 70 tons, many of these bridges have suffered badly from the ravages of time and heavy loads. Pending available fi- nancing, emergency repair contracts have been awarded for 5 important bridges during 1973 at a cost of $375,000, causing considerable traffic inconvenience. First steps to initiate preliminary design have been taken in several cases, preparatory to launching an estimated $17.5 million program. The larger structures requiring replacement, new super- structures or other major work include Harvard Bridge over Charles River, Wellington Bridge between Somerville and Medford, Columbia Road Bridge in Dorchester, 2 rail- road bridges on Alewife Brook Parkway in Cambridge, Dorchester Bay Bridge, a McGrath Highway bridge in Somer- ville and General Lawrence Bridge, Veterans Memorial Park- way, Medford. As a vital adjunct to roadway construction, MDC is carrying on a continuous program for improving traffic and street lights as safety measures. There are 62 locations on MDC parkways and boulevards where traffic signals are in some stage of final design. Numerous other intersections are undergoing preliminary design work. Street lighting improvements are undergoing preparation or construction on Alewife Brook Parkway, Hammond Pond Parkway, VFW Parkway, and the Storrow Drive and Esplanade area. Consultants have completed a study and preliminary designs for modifications on two key roadways, Storrow Drive -Soldiers Field Road in Boston and the Lynnway in Lynn. To improve the pleasure qualities of travel on parkways an extensive tree-planting program is continuing. Increased attention is also being given to planning recreational and commuter bikeways in response to the increased use of bicycles. A major contract for improvements and ex- tension of bikepaths along Charles River is under prepara- tion for a construction start next year. Charles River Bikeway Police Reorganization Stresses Centralized Management System Change has continued to be the dominant theme of the Metropolitan Police during the past year. The emphasis, however, switched to internal operations and management following the submission of a Federally-funded consultant report. The report stressed that MDC's police force has adapted to the changing needs of our times through innovative oper- ational measures, but its administrative and management structure has not kept pace, despite tremendous growth of miles of expressways and roads and the increase in crime felt everywhere. To cope more effectively with the tasks of controlling and managing a force of 650 men spread over an area of 500 square miles and performing a large variety of duties, the report recommends a more centralized management and information system. Of equal importance is the fact that the report recommends some changes in the decentralized concept of service delivery, embodied in the existence of seven major police stations in the metropolitan area. Essential to modernization is the building of a stronger headquarters operation with increased specialization at the command and staff levels to complement the various tasks and services performed by the decentralized patrol personnel. The major theme of the reorganization is the assignment of command responsibility in each major area of police activity. Thus, the many supportive activities for effective patrol and response as well as actual patrol operations will each be under the command of a deputy superintendent. TRAFFIC PLANNING UNIT A Traffic Planning unit has been established to begin studying the major problems of commuter traffic flow, accident investigation and prevention and enforcement. It is possible that this study will result in the formation of a large squad of men devoted exclusively to these major problems. To insure responsible command capability at all times of the day or night a Watch Commander function has been organized. With this step the division is beginning to move towards a more centrally controlled operation. Improve- ment in the radio communication system will provide increased coverage and better communication between head- quarters and the various stations. A system of satellite receivers, purchased with Federal and State funds, will pro- vide input to a system which will automatically select the best radio signal, thus giving a clearer message to the radio dispatchers. 20 VARIED FUNCTIONS are performed by MDC Police, among them mounted patrol, underwater recovery, boatmen and traffic control on 186 miles of roadways. Essential to all of these improvements and changes will be a Central Records system. This will provide command personnel with accurate, timely information about events and resources. Such data will enable them to assign men and equipment to areas where they are most needed. The procedure will be an expansion of an existing system for pinpointing traffic accidents. The existing accident information system provides com- parative data for hundreds of locations throughout the Metropolitan Parks District. Accidents are recorded by type, time, cause and other significant data. Citations issued by police officers are also recorded for each of these locations. Thus, commanders can compare enforcement efforts and accident records as a guide to highway safety operations. This information has been and will continue to be used for deploying enforcement personnel and devel- oping high accident location enforcement campaigns. A comparable system will be developed for all types of police activity. During the past year the highly successful undercover narcotics operation continued to make inroads in reducing this type of criminal activity. The operation also high- lighted the cooperation between MDC and cities and towns in the Parks District. K-9 officers and dogs as well as the scuba team assisted local law enforcement agencies. Further versatility was developed by some members of the scuba team who received training in bomb search and disposal techniques to protect MDC facilities and assist cities and towns when the need arises. Despite emphasis on recreation, parklands and a vital traffic network under MDC jurisdiction, Metropolitan Police must also be prepared to cope with a wide variety of crime, a goal which is being met by a dynamic approach to ever- changing problems of law enforcement. Outstanding Police Performance Recognized by Commendations Training and courage go hand in hand for out- standing performance of duty by officers of the Met- ropolitan Police. Here are some examples of events that have been honored in the past year by depart- mental commendations and citations by other agen- cies: Three officers who plunged into raging ocean surf in efforts to avert drowning tragedies . . . Four mem- bers of the scuba team recovering murder evidence from the bottom of the Charles River during three days of sub-freezing weather ... An undercover nar- cotics team breaking up a drug-pushing operation preying on high school students . . . Two undercover men probing drug pushers brutally beaten by a gang attack after their "cover" was broken, illustrating the extreme hazards of their assignment. 21 How MDC Organization Delivers Regional Services The Metropolitan District Commission's concept is based on the belief that communities in Metropolitan Boston can derive greater benefits with more efficiency and lower costs through regional operation of parks, water and sewerage systems. It has become increasingly evident that many facets of urban life and the environment can be developed and administered most effectively without regard for municipal boundaries. This trend originated in 1889 with the creation of the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission as the nation's first legally-constituted metropolitan district. Then came the Metropolitan Parks District in 1893 and the Metropolitan Water Board in 1895. The three agencies were consolidated into the Metropolitan District Commission in 1919 for greater efficiency and economy. Operations are governed by a 5-member Commission ap- pointed by the Governor. A Commissioner serves as full- time executive and administrative head of the agency. The Commissioner is joined by 4 part-time Associate Com- missioners at weekly meetings in setting policy, approving contracts and participating in decisions on departmental operations. The Commissioner and Associate Commissioners each have an equal vote, except that "concurrence of the Commissioner and of not less than 2 Associate Commis- sioners shall be required for the execution of contracts and of such other official actions of the Commission as may be required by law." The Reorganization Act of 1969 establishing a cabinet system placed MDC under the jurisdiction of the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, headed by Secretary Charles H. W. Foster. As a department of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, MDC must obtain approval of its operating budget and bond issues for capital construction from the Governor and Legislature. To keep cities and towns informed about activities, public hearings are required annually for municipal officials in the Parks, Sewerage and Water Districts regarding improvements, extensions, new facilities and financial data. In addition to central administrative functions, MDC is presently organized into 6 operational divisions: Water, Sewerage, Construction Engineering, Parks and Recreation, Park Engineering and Police. All legal aspects of the agency's functions are supervised by the Office of General Counsel, such as drafting legal opinions, contracts, proposed legislation, directives and rules and regulations, dealing with public bidding procedure, con- ducting or participating in quasi-judicial hearings in the areas of personnel, labor relations and police administration, and advising the Commission on various questions of law. A Planning Section is primarily concerned with park and recreational development, roadway system improvements, landscaping and open space acquisition. The Financial Office operates a data-processing unit for payroll and other departmental uses, processes all receipts and disbursements, maintains fiscal records and serves as the department's ac- counting office. Interviews and job placement functions are handled by a Personnel Office, which also negotiates collective bargaining agreements, maintains personnel re- cords, co-ordinates enrollment in training courses and conducts an alcoholic rehabilitation program. Environment and open space have been given high priority status, leading to creation of new Environmental Planning, Land Planning and Environmental Quality units, which are playing a key role in MDC programs. A reference library has been established as a source of historical data, publications, reports and other data. Another resource is a newly -organized language bank, with departmental personnel capable of conversing, reading and writing in 21 languages. ENGINEERING DIVISION The Construction Engineering Division is responsible for planning, engineering and supervising construction of facili- ties for the Water and Sewerage Divisions, flood control and some Parks District projects. The completed facilities are turned over to the operating divisions for maintenance and operation. Twenty -five contracts were in various stages of construc- tion or completed during fiscal 1973, totaling $43,611,987. Awarded in this period were 13 contracts amounting to $5,300,332. They included 2 for the water system at $20,750; 10 for sewage disposal or pollution control, $4,488,822, and 1 for flood control, $790,760. Six were previously awarded and still in progress for a total of $32,341,536. One of these was for the Water Divi- sion at $19,100,385; 4 for Sewerage, $7,842,579, and a drainage and flood control project at $5,398,571. Six contracts awarded prior to 1973 amounting to $5,970,117 were completed and 6 others awarded in 1973 were finished, totaling $312,663. Three of the completed contracts were for the Water Division at a cost of $4,268,144; 7 for the Sewerage Division, $436,726, and 2 flood control projects at $1,577,910. WATER DIVISION The purpose of the Water Division is to provide a suf- ficient supply of pure water to communities in the Metropolitan Water District and such other cities and towns as can be reasonably supplied. Twenty-five communities receive their entire water sup- ply and 7 a partial supply, with an area of 309 square miles and 1,874,000 population. The City of Woburn (pop. 37,406) was admitted as the 33rd member on August 9, 1972, as a partial user, but will not be linked to the system 22 until completion of a new pipeline and pumping station. Ten communities in Central Massachusetts located near MDC reservoirs and aqueducts are supplied in whole or in part under special agreements. The Water District's sources are the Quabbin, Wachusett and Sudbury watersheds and the runoff of the Ware River watershed during certain periods. Storage reservoirs on these watersheds have a capacity of 495 billion gallons, prin- cipally at Quabbin Reservoir with its capacity of 412 bil- lion gallons and Wachusett's 67 billion gallons. The water supply is delivered to Metropolitan Boston through 121 miles of aqueducts and distributed via approx- imately 250 miles of pipelines, mostly by gravity flow. Facilities under control of the Water Division include 6 storage reservoirs with 467 square miles of tributary water- shed, a water surface of 30,000 acres, 4 hydro-electric power stations, 16 miles of high tension power transmission lines, 12 distribution pumping stations to service high ele- vations and 16 distribution reservoirs with a capacity of 3.1 billion gallons. Six contracts totaling $1,474,917 were awarded during fiscal 1973, including $1,396,707 for the pipeline linking the system with Woburn. Five previously awarded con- tracts were completed at a cost of $1,373,558, highlighted by a project relocating a large water main under Chelsea River between Chelsea and East Boston at a cost of $1,339,752. The other work dealt with various mainte- nance and repair requirements. SEWERAGE DIVISION An intricate sewerage and treatment system is under the jurisdiction of the Sewerage Division. Its vast sewage col- lection and pollution abatement functions require mainte- nance and operation of 12 pumping stations, 2 treatment plants, 4 pre-treatment headworks, a detention and chlo- rination station for combined storm water and sewage over- flows along Charles River Basin and 226 miles of trunk sewers. Forty-three cities and towns covering 408 square miles are members of the Sewerage District, with 2,219,000 in- habitants. Wastewater flows through 4,980 miles of local sewers connected to MDC trunk lines at 1,775 locations, an increase of 59 miles over the previous year. The munic- ipal lines link 391,449 individual connections with the MDC system, an increase of 2,233 in the past year. Average daily sewage load was 487 million gallons and the 24-hour maximum flow was 785 mgd passing through primary treatment and chlorination at Deer Island and Nut Island plants before discharge via outfalls into outer Boston Harbor. The process provides screening and grit removal, pre-chlorination, pre-aeration, primary sedimentation and post chlorination. Raw sludge is treated by thickening and high rate digestion prior to discharge. The Town of Holbrook became a member of the district in 1971, but is not contributing sewage to the system as yet. There were 9 contracts for maintenance and repairs awarded by the division or in effect during fiscal 1973, totaling $75,694. PARK ENGINEERING DIVISION The multi-faceted functions of the Park Engineering Division includes designing, engineering services, complete contract document preparation and supervision of new con- struction and major repairs of park facilities, roadways, bridges, drawbridges and locks, street lighting and traffic controls. Upon completion, new facilities come under the juris- diction of the Parks and Recreation Division for operating and routine maintenance. Sixty-seven contracts were awarded, in progress or com- pleted at a total cost of $10,078,559. PARKS & RECREATION DIVISION MDC's newest division is Parks and Recreation, formed in 1970 by combining operation and maintenance of park res- ervations, recreational facilities and roadways with the Rec- reation Section. Previously, these functions were admin- istered by district captains of MDC Police. Operation of locks and drawbridges was transferred subsequently to this agency from the Parks Engineering Division. Now the largest division in MDC, Parks & Recreation has responsibility for 14,332 acres of parkland, including 5 major reservations, as well as 17 miles of beaches, 25 skating rinks, 19 swimming pools, 3 18-hole golf courses, 168 miles of roadway and a wide variety of other recreational facili- ties, parks and reservations. The division also has adminis- trative and maintenance responsibility for zoos. POLICE DIVISION Primary mission of the Police Division is protection of MDC property and people using its facilities and patrol of 186 miles of MDC roadways and the Northeast, Southeast and Central Artery expressways, within Suffolk County, which are maintained by the State Department of Public Works. The division also has full police powers in any com- munity where MDC has property. Its broad responsibility for law enforcement at parklands, waterways, harbor islands and roadways requires highly- diversified functions and equipment. Among them are K-9. scuba, detective, bomb disposal and narcotic units, a tactical force, regional police academy, patrol boats, mounted policemen, breathalyzers, radar and other highway safety and enforcement devices. MDC Police plays an important role in assisting local police departments in certain contingencies, particularly those requiring specialized training, equipment and man- power. RIGHT OF WAY FUNCTIONS The legal aspects of land takings, easements and convey- ances are performed by the Right of Way Section for rec- reational, flood control, sewerage and water supply pur- poses. Permits, easements, deeds and other types of instruments are also processed, along with maintaining and updating an inventors of MDC land. The section has an enforcement unit which deals with encroachment on MDC lands, pollution of rivers and streams and other similar violations. 23 Assessments Primary Source of MDC Financing As a regional public agency, the Metropolitan District Commission is financed primarily by assessments on 54 communities which are members of one or more of its 3 districts. Additional money comes from the State Highway Fund, State General Fund, state allocations for certain flood con- trol projects and miscellaneous revenue such as fees, rentals, licenses, permits, fines, penalties, sales, Federal reimburse- ments or grants, etc. The operating budget and bond issues for capital con- struction are subject to approval by the Legislature and Governor. Principal financing sources for the 3 districts are the following: PARKS - Recreational capital construction by bond issues, amortized by assessments based on property tax valuations of communities in the district; maintenance of boulevards and reservations and police costs by 60% from the State Highway Fund, 1% from the State's General Fund and 39% by member cities and towns with one-third based on population and two-thirds on valuation; highway and bridge construction by legislative allocations from state highway bond issues. WATER - Charge of $120 per million gallons, with special provisions for communities outside the Water District. SEWERAGE - Debt requirements apportioned on the basis of capacity of municipal sewers connected to MDC sewerage system; maintenance expense assessed on the basis of population. During the fiscal year which started July 1, 1972, and ended June 30, 1973, the Commission spent $39,018,166 on maintenance and operations. The sum of $22,670,207 was paid for interest and retirement of bonds issued for capital projects, and bonds to cover water fund deficits. The combined expenditure was $61,688,373. Additionally, $5,557,332 was expended for highway con- struction and certain flood control projects allocated from state highway bond issues and other special authorizations. These are financed by state funds rather than assessments on MDC cities and towns. The $67,245,705 total represented 58% for maintenance and operations, 34% for payment on bonded debt and 8% for expenditures from state bond funds not assessed on MDC cities and towns. Despite a cost of living pay increase averaging 3.8% and other effects of the inflationary trend, expenditures for maintenance and operations were reduced from $39,586,201 in 1972 to $39,018,166 in 1973, a drop of $568,035. Debt service rose to $22,670,207, an increase of $1,567,273. Legislation shifting Engineering Division expense from long-term construction bond issues to an annual appropria- tion had minimal impact, for the change affected only 5 weeks of the fiscal year. For next year, however, the Sewerage and Water districts will each be charged 49% of the division's annual budget of nearly $4 million and 2% will come from the state's General Fund. Use of bond funds had been legislatively authorized since 1926 to cover the Engineering Division's payroll and other costs, primarily for sewer, water and flood control projects. EXPENDITURES 1973 Operations Debt Administration $ 758,325 - Parks 24,212,201 $ 4,825,767 Sewerage 6,809,462 7,534,928 Water Total 7,238,178 $39,018,166 $61,688,373 10,309,512 $22,670,207 Operations $ 756,089 24,592,653 6,841,356 7,396,103 $39,586,201 Debt $ 4,150,376 7,350,545 9,602,013 $21,102,934 $60,689,135 • I ncludes cost of MDC Police operations. Note — An additional $5,557,332 was spent in 1973 and $8,004,076 in 1972 for highway construction projects financed by state highway bond issues and flood control and other special authorizations financed by General Fund bond issues rather than assessments on MDC cities and towns. 24 PRir 1973 Parks $16,321,882 Sewerage 13,455,968 Water 12,461,148 State Highway Fund 14,869,303 State General Fund 223,351 Revenue 2,669,810 PRINCIPAL INCOME SOURCES 1972 $12,608,369 37 Cities & Towns • 15,797,188 43 Cities & Towns 12,512,424 32 Cities & Towns 15,039,780 220,148 2,767,888 Admissions, Sales, Fees, etc. Deficit 3,585,000 3,680,000 Bonds Total $63,586,462 $62,625,797 * I ncludes deferred assessment of $1 ,729,454 Note: Income figures for Water and Sewerage differ slightly from assessment table, due to various adjustments. The Commission continues its efforts to operate managed resources in a businesslike manner. It bears repetition that MDC's sale of power, licenses, fees, concession permits, etc., do not accrue to the Commission for re-use, but rather flow directly into the appropriate fund and thereby reduces assessments against cities and towns. Federal reimbursements ordinarily have the same effect. Largest expenditure of the Commission has been, as always, personnel, shown as follows: "PERSONNEL EXPENDITURES 1973 1972 1971 Administration $ 566,340 $ 544,111 $ 539,457 Engineering 3,324,074 2,940.438 2.482.421 Highway Eng. 476.456 427,007 387.581 Parks & Parks Eng. 8,692,089 9,148.472 8.668,848 Police 7,365,332 6.931.721 6.363,563 Sewerage 4,487,642 4,336,135 4,132.322 Water 4,922,443 4.916,154 4.643,978 Total $29,834,376 $29,244,038 $27,218,170 •Includes permanent, temporary and seasonal employees as of June 30. 25 TOTAL PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY EMPLOYEES AS OF JUNE 30 1973 1972 1971 Administration Perm. 56 Temp. 6 Total 62 Perm. 58 Temp. 8 Total 66 Perm. 62 Temp. 6 Tota 68 Engineering 274 - 274 268 - 268 246 - 246 Highway Engineering - 46 46 - 44 44 - 44 44 Parks & Parks Eng. 668 940 1608 657 1017 1674 684 1297 1981 Police 551 23 574 613 - 613 625 - 625 Sewerage 441 - 441 454 2 456 453 13 466 Water 510 41 551 531 77 608 555 80 635 Total 2500 1056 3556 2581 1148 3729 2625 1440 4065 Finally, a word must be said about the debt structure for which MDC is responsible. Although there has been a flattening trend in terms of construction in recent years, there will soon again be substantial increases caused by the Water Division's major new Dorchester Tunnel and the Northfield-Quabbin Reservoir aqueduct for diverting excess Connecticut River water. In ad- dition, ongoing wastewater studies, accompanied by strong pressure from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency will com- pel a costly upgrading of the Deer Island and Nut Island sewerage treatment systems. When these prospects are combined with the steady climb in water deficit-financing bonds, it will be seen that the current debt is already overheavy and that its future condition is somewhat alarming. A significant factor in the Water Fund indebtedness has been the issuance of long-term bonds to cover annual deficits, a pro- cedure instituted by law in 1946 and responsible for borrowing $97.5 million in obligations by 1973, of which $54,541,000 is currently outstanding. Interest payments have practically doubled the cost of payments on deficit debt. A pay-as-you- go system to end this practice has been urged in the past by MDC and the proposal is pending with the 1973 Legislature. 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 Sewerage $91,301 95.555 93.659 89.568 88.942 * Includes Water Fund deficit debt. OUTSTANDING DEBT, JUNE 30 (In millions of dollars) * Water Parks Total $130,268 $39,997 $261,566 129.285 40.353 265.193 117.663 37.128 248.450 113.536 39.353 242.457 114.509 39.856 243.307 26 TOTAL ASSESSMENTS FOR METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS FOR 1972 Metropolitan Metropolitan Parks Metropolitan Cities and Towns Water and Boulevards Sewerage System Total Arlington 304,500.00 384,035.68 327,664.09 1.016.199.77 Ashland 30,200.58 30.200.58 Belmont 121,394.76 293,708.23 150.535.39 565,638.38 Boston 6,375,047.52 5,378,022.43 4,433,362.21 16.186,432.16 Braintree 225,011.72 159,458.33 384.470.05 Brooklinc 354,347.52 649,748.72 297,596.61 1.301.692.85 Burlington 89,921.10 89.921.10 Cambridge 46,803.60 828,858.37 908,780.07 1.784,442.114 Canton 53,546.04 90,400.17 91,271.21 235.217.42 Chelsea 170,425.32 191,559.37 250,199.62 612,184.31 Cohasset 3,421.21 3.421.21 Dcdham 207,720.79 175.217.94 382.938.73 Dover 37,088.85 37.088.85 Everett 337,526.52 500,118.46 284,679.78 1.122,324.76 Framingham 230,491.80 230.491.80 Hingham 124,715.32 38,546.51 163,261.83 Hull 85,345.61 85.345.61 Lexington 209,826.00 178,788.72 388.614.72 Lynn 749.120.44 749.120.44 Lynnfield Water District 15,434.04 15,434.04 Maiden 321,157.32 379,998.46 337,922.32 1,039,078.10 Marblehead 101,989.20 101.989.20 Med ford 364,842.12 432,244.67 459,769.29 1.256.856.08 Melrose 125,276.52 242,955.87 214,369.93 582.602.32 Milton 104,802.24 250,693.32 215,367.93 570.863.49 Nahant 25,253.52 31,046.66 56,300. IX Natick 140.218.24 140,218.24 Necdham 51,265.32 240,307.67 160,226.76 451.799.75 Newton 568,899.00 914,410.50 624,817.03 184.108.40.206 Norwood 216.432.00 142.054.29 358.486.29 Pcabody 45,727.20 45.727.20 Quincy 463,597.20 736.762.36 571,959.76 1,772,319.32 Randolph 107.802.52 107,802.52 Reading 79.099.39 79.099.39 Revere 173,375.04 267.397.11 203,022.75 643,794.90 Saugus 128.458.44 142.932.45 271,390.89 Somerville 476,253.12 594.142.70 512.102.55 1.582.498.37 Stoncham 139,986.96 126.796.06 115.228.08 382.011.10 Stoughton 76,694.31 76.694 .31 Swampscott 72.234.60 51.219.83 123.454 4^ Wakefield 109,309.20 176.583.07 133.241.77 419.134 04 Walpole 69.177.96 69.177.96 Waltham 495.707.16 413.170.62 313.954.46 1,222,832 24 Watcrtown 209.676.96 327,669.16 226.46903 763.815 15 Wellcsley 291.691.59 127.519.61 419,21 1.20 Weston 28,795.32 96.660.40 125.455.72 Westwood 87,927.78 62.744.67 150.67 2.45 Weymouth 428,633.92 254.201 14 682. 83 Wilmington 61.635 76 61 ,635.76 Winchester 55.646.52 201.775.99 203.25 < 97 460.678.48 Winthrop 79.757.52 137,986.10 125.81607 -969 Woburn 258.067 38 ..- )g SI 2.347.293.80 SI 6.321. 881.64 $13,443.45: 93 542. 11 2.628.39 Note: Assessments for 1972 were received in fi seel 1973 27 DISTRICT MEMBERSHIP Water Parks Sewerage Water Arlington X Ashland Belmont X * Bedford Boston X Braintree Brookline X Burlington Cambridge X Canton X Chelsea X Cohasset Dedham Dover Everett X Framingham Hingham *Holbrook Hull Lexington X Lynn Lynnfield Water Dist. X Maiden X Marblehead X Medford X Melrose X Milton X Nahant X Natick Needham X Newton X Norwood X Peabody X Quincy X Randolph Reading Revere X Saugus X Somerville X Stoneham X Stoughton Swampscott X Wakefield X Walpole Waltham X Watertown X Wellesley Weston X Westwood Weymouth Wilmington Winchester X Winthrop X **Woburn X Totals 33 Parks x x X X X X X X X X X X X X 37 Sewerage x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 43 (Beyond the Water District the MDC furnishes the entire water supply for Chicopee, South Hadley Fire District No. 1 and Wilbraham, a partial supply to Clinton, Framingham, Leom- inster, Marlboro, Northboro and Southboro and an emergency standby connection for Wor- cester.) Membership 3 Districts 2 Districts 1 District 23 13 18 54 •Bedford joined the Sewerage District in June, 1970, with sewage for part of the town handled through the town of Lexington under special contract. Holbrook became a member of Sewerage District in January, 1971, but is not con- tributing sewage to the system. ••Woburn was admitted to Water District in August, 1972, but receives no supply pending construction of a new pipe- line and pumping station. 28 METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION District Membership Parks - Water - Sewerage Total Members -54 Member of all three MDC districts Member of two districts D Member of one district P Parks - 37 If Water - 33 S Sewerage - 43 Note: Woburn was admitted to Water District August 9. 1972. but received no supply pending construction of a new pipeline and pumping station.